Yes, there are differences. Some can be subtle, other big.
My first CD player was a NAD 5425. It had the Technics 18 bit MASH D/A converter.
Cheerful, nice. I used it with a NAD 320i and Dali 104 speakers. Very nice.
But funds allowed an amplifier upgrade to a NAD 306. Suddenly the NAD CD-player wasn't so hot anymore. It sounded thin. I tried a Micromega Junior (essentially a Philips with a reworked analogue output stage and 2x16 bit converters with 4 times oversampling) and it was faster, more agile, more fun, more rhythmic... I was happy!
Today I have an Alchemist TS-1D 24/96 D/A. I don't have the Micromega anymore, but a Marantz CD 63 KI Signature instead (this is a 1bit Bitstream player). The Alchemist has more neutral and full bodied sound, but the Marantz has something special to it. It is not neutral, it is colored but in a way that makes the music sound more musical... more fun. It's fun listening to it, very pleasant. And if I want the more neutral and drier sound I simply use the coax optical output to the Alchemist D/A.
An interesting note - cables. I have three cables, an Ixos budget cable, Audioquest Turquoise (8 years old) and a thick Xindak cable. The Xindak cable doesn't work at all with my Alchemist D/A, I have no answer to why. It sounds thin, boring, lacking body to the instruments, being too relaxed. The Audioquest Turquoise is a better match. And the Ixos also works, but it sounds a bit too warm, but very easy listening (I have it connected to my RDS tuner normally...). With the Marantz, the Xindak shines. The Audioquest just sounded too bright on the Marantz. But Xindak is the perfect match. The cheaper Ixos also works but is, again, a bit warm and relaxed..
And then there are those that says cables doesn't make a difference... well, they surely does in my system!