It's a little like the chicken and egg scenareo, certainly the advent of the 45 was a godsend to the Jukebox manufactures.
It was light, promoted as 'unbreakable', had a long life (relatively for a jukebox record) and of course compact.
Whether the large hole was an RCA design or a jukebox manufactures request we will probably never know. certainly it enabled Seeburg to modify their mechanism to use the 45 and the large hole makes location easier, all jukebox manufactures had mechanisms which would play 78's with the standard small hole so it was not an engineering requirement. What it did enable, at a later date was for Jukeboxes to use the different size centres to change the speed when for a short time 7in 33rpm EP discs with a small hole became available (at an extra charge to the customer).
Pictured a RCA 45 only record player from around '49/50.