Around $ 200,00 it its probably the best to get something vintage, like thorens, dual, garrard, technics and others, since brand new tables are clearly more expensive as $ 200,00. The only good new table for approx. $ 280,00 is the pro-ject essential. Be aware of all those plastic-bombers going for prices lower than this. Also make sure your systems has a dedicated phono-input. Otherwise you will need a phono-preamp.
Hard to say what is best needle/stylus available. Prices for cartridges vary from approx. $ 30,00 up to unlimited.
Records last very long if handled right. That means, do not play them with worn, dirty or damaged needles or with a misaligned cartridge. Keep them dust-free and avoid humidity and exposure to direct sunlight and heat.
My oldest vinyl records are more than 40 yers old and still sound good. I've got no doubts that will continue for another 40 years or even longer.
Records cannot be restored, once the modulation is damaged, due to needle wear f.e. But dirty records can be cleaned efficent with several methods like special washing machines.
The question analog/digital sound was discussed many times here. You will find a lot of statements using the search function.
One record a day keeps the doctor away!