My 2p worth :
It's hard to know what's going on, and it's fascinating really. Not much, or any normal domestic dust is ferromagnetic, and vinyl certainly isn't. So wouldn't follow that pattern. So what the small debris is, which forms a classic pattern and stands on end, is a mystery I think. As is why it is mostly on one side?
The long strands resemble debris I've always thought could be vinyl, and assume it often is. I always take it as a bad sign, something might be wrong either in the stylus tip or the vinyl composition. I don't know for sure, but only ever seen it personally on records which clog readily, or on a chipped stylus.
So more than one thing could be going on, and at least one of them could suggest vinyl damage in my book. So I'd check it out carefully.
Or you might have uncovered that some vinyl molecules can form ferromagnetic structures, in which case you're up for a Nobel prize......!